My First Research Article published in IOSR’s journal of Humanities and social sciences

Posted On July 17, 2013

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On Campus Technical Training facilities in Media Schools of Lahore.

Hafiz Qasir Abbas1, Fatima Tuz Zohra2

1Lecturer at Government College University, Faisalabad & M.Phil Fellow Department of Mass Communication, Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad. House # 26, Nawab Street, Bhatti Colony, Model Town Link Road, Lahore, Pakistan.

2Postgraduate Student of Institute of Communication Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore. House No 5-C, Mansoora Multan Road, Lahore, Pakistan.

Abstract: Despite Pakistan’s great geographic, cultural and demographic diversity, it shares many challenges and issues that are fundamental to improve the quality and relevance of media education as a means of human resources development and reliable source of information for ignorance stricken but an emerging nation. Educational institutes which are imparting media education must consider a coherent strategy for training of media students in which on campus training facility plays an important and vital role. Among the critical issues that must be considered when planning training programs to develop above mentioned resources are the following: Growing number of students in media schools and continuously increasing utilization of media by masses; poor offers of internships for fresh graduates at media houses and inefficiency of PEMRA in ensuring training facilities for students at these media houses; increasing demands for secondary and technical education; and poorly managed training infra structure at public sector media schools.

                The success of on campus training of media students in any developing country can be considered a key indicator of the country‘s advancement in the field of media and it is sure to have well learned and seasoned journalist that can be given responsibility of information dissemination and social awareness. Any country that evolved into an advanced one in communication field, media training must have played an active and vital role as skilled manpower would have been required, also to enable its sustainability.

The choice of this paper title was done having carefully considered the following factors:

  • Pakistan has entered into an era of free media where information flow is very rapid and has been seen as the most actively participated activity, by workers and users.
  • Recent years’ national political scenario has gone through a phase of transition from dictatorship to democracy which it largely owes to free media. It advocates need and utility of media for Pakistan.
  •  Geographic diversity, cultural & ethnic diversity makes a lot of space for development through media which requires well trained media professionals.
  • Community media has played an active role in disaster management, as in 2006 earth quake PUFM 104.6 played an active role, advocates need of more functional and active media training facilities.

                This paper compares facilities available in media schools in order to know their current strength for producing highly motivated and learned media professionals. The survey research method has been employed to collect information of equipment and manpower available to these media training schools. By the end, the paper suggests ways to make things better by improving facilities for the students of media in order to have professional and trained work force for newly born media of Pakistan.

Key words; Pakistan, Education, Training, Media Schools, PUFM 104.6, Radio Kinnaird 96.6, Voice of LCWU 97.6, Political Change, awareness.

 

  1. I.                   Introduction

                PEMRA Act 2002 not only brought number of media channels but also bestowed them freedom of speech. It increased number of media users rapidly. This not only brought change in the outlook of media practices but also revolutionized media studies in the educational institutes of Pakistan. The new scenario demanded more learned and trained media professionals. Thus, forcing media schools to re-design their curriculum and provide more technical trainings to their students. Therefore, the researcher has taken an in-depth survey of available media practice houses, (which are in radio form so far as no university has its television practice house) to find their technical strength in order to train their students for future challenges. The present study is based on three educational radios of Lahore which are as follows;  

 

 

 

1.1.  Punjab University FM 104.6

Punjab University has been running its own radio channel “Punjab University FM 104.6” (PUFM 104.6) since 2004. It is situated in the premises of Punjab University’s Institute of Communication Studies. Institute of Communication studies manages all the affairs of the PUFM 104.6, including administration, programming, production, and presentation. PUFM 104.6 is the first ever educational radio channel in Punjab province of the Pakistan established in the universities. Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) issued the license for PUFM 104.6 on the educational grounds as a result of its flexible policy for the promotion of electronic media. Punjab University FM 104.6 is basically a non- commercial radio channel which has been established for the training purposes of media students studying in Institute of communication studies, university of Punjab and provides educational information services to the people of in its surroundings. Students doing specialization in print & electronic media practice their knowledge of practical journalism in a real encouraging Radio broadcasting atmosphere.

Punjab University FM 104.6 Radio station is fully equipped with latest and modern broadcasting facilities funded by UBESCO. The Station is located in the broadcasting wing of the Institute of Communication Studies, Punjab University.

Punjab University Radio FM 104.6 started its transmission on 5th June, 2004 when the than Vice Chancellor Punjab University Bridg. Arshad Mahmood inaugurated the station. The transmission of PUFM 104.6 is aired for four hours daily from 2pm to 6 pm. The students of Institute of Communication Studies work in radio station as volunteer presenters, announcers, and script writer and programme researchers. This is all because of the dedication of the than station director Prof. Dr. Mughees-ud-Din Sheikh who devoted all his energy to make PUFM 104.6 a real training center for his students. The broadcasting and infrastructural facilities available in PUFM does not exist in the broadcasting houses of many universities of media studies across the world.

Punjab University radio has signed MOU’s with many national and international broadcasting organizations. An MOU has recently been signed between PUFM and Dutch Welle Radio, Germany, according to which the students of radio broadcasting would be offered internship and training in Bonn Germany.

Now, PUFM 104.6 has become a place of producing quality producers and presenters and is serving as a human resource center for the commercial needs of the broadcasting market. Many trained producers and presenters of PUFM are now working in commercial radio station of the country and are contributing their experience and skills professionally.

Punjab University FM 104.6 has been divided into three departments:

  1. Programming and transmission
  2. New and Outdoor Current Affairs
  3. Admin Department

 

1.2 FM 96.6 Voice of LCWU

FM 96.6 is the first educational radio station in Pakistan at a women’s university. . It is situated in the premises of Lahore College for Women University. Voice of LCWU 96.6, a non- commercial radio channel, has been established with the prime objective of disseminating educational information and to provide a practice area for media students of university. Recorded test transmission was aired on 23 March 2009 by Ayesha Saba, a student of Mass Communication and initially its duration was one hour but in 2010 on 4th January it started its regular 2 hour daily transmission from 11 am to 1pm. After this, the time of transmission increased on November 2010 which was from 11am to 2pm.The producers and presenters are Mass Communication students which are trained to become presenters/ radio producer and are encouraged to enhance their vocal quality for voice over’s for radio documentaries and features.

One of the prime objectives of Voice of LCWU 96.6 is to provide a learning platform to the students of Communication Studies and to provide professional training. Students doing specialization in broadcast media practice their knowledge of practical journalism in a real encouraging radio broadcasting atmosphere.

 

1.3 Radio Kinnaird FM 97.6

                Radio Kinnaird FM 94.6 is basically a non-commercial radio channel which has been established to provide technical training facilities to the students and to provide educational services to the people of Lahore City. Students doing specialization in electronic are offered to practice their knowledge and skills in order to make them suitable for practical journalism and Radio broadcasting atmosphere. Kinnaird college FM radio 94.6 radio station is equipped with latest and modern broadcasting facilities. The radio station was established in February, 2011. The test transmission of 6 months was carried out before the inauguration of the radio station. Mr. Ahmed Noor, a well-known journalist of the time, is charge of this radio station. The time duration of its transmission is 2 hours daily which is still recorded and there is no specific time duration of its transmission.

 

  1. II.                Methodology

                The present research used survey method for the collection of data and for this purpose questionnaire tool was adopted. Universe of the present study is educational radios of Lahore and sample size consisted of three radios, PUFM 104.6, Voice of LCWU 96.6 & Radio Kinnaird FM 97.6.

 

  1. III.             Findings & Interpretations

3.1. Technical Introduction of PUFM 104.6

Name of University: University of Punjab   

Channel Name: PU FM 104.6                                          Frequency: 104.6MHz

Transmission Time: 12:00-04:00 PM                           Transmitter Power: 50Watt

List of Technical Staff

Name

Designation

Abdul Rehman

Studio Engineer

Ahmad Raza Ghuman

IT Supervisor

Masood Khalid Malhi

Audio Editor

 

List of Equipments

No.

Name of Equipment

Quantity

Status

  1.  

Micro Phone

6

Active

  1.  

Audio Mixer

2

Active

  1.  

CD Player

2

Active

  1.  

Audio Cassette player

2

Active

  1.  

MD Player

2

Active

  1.  

Computer Systems( 1 Server, 1 Reco Machine)

6

Active

  1.  

Head Phone

12

6 Active

  1.  

IC Recorder

6

4 Active

  1.  

Sound Processor

1

Not Active

  1.  

Delaying Machine

1

Active

  1.  

Hybrid Set (For live calls)

1

Active

  1.  

Sound Speakers

3 Pairs

2 Active

  1.  

Radio Monitors

12

4 Active

  1.  

FM transmitter (1 for Back up)

2

Active

  1.  

Software CDS

25

Active

  1.  

OB Microphones

6

4 Active

  1.  

OB Kits

2

0 Active

 

                Table given above gives us a detailed introduction of technical standing of PUFM 104.6. It includes a team of three dedicated staff members which are available for the guidance of students. The transmission time is suitable for almost all students belonging to morning and evening programs. All equipment, other than OB kits, is in well working condition.


3.2. Technical Introduction of Radio Kinnaird FM 97.6

Name of University: Kinnaird College for Women    

Channel Name: Radio Kinnaird                                      Frequency: 97.6 MHz

Transmission Time: 11:00 AM- 01:00 PM                  Transmitter Power: 230 Watts
List of Technical Staff

                                               Name           

Designation

Syed Majid Ali

Broadcast Engineer

 

List of Equipments

No.

Name of Equipment

Quantity

Status

  1.  

Micro Phone

5

Active

  1.  

Audio Mixer

2

Active

  1.  

CD Player

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

Audio Cassette player

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

MD Player

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

Computer Systems( 1 Server, 1 Reco Machine)

10

Active

  1.  

Head Phone

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

IC Recorder

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

Sound Processor

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

Delaying Machine

1

Active

  1.  

Hybrid Set (For live calls)

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

Sound Speakers

4

Active

  1.  

Radio Monitors

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

FM transmitter

1

Active

  1.  

Software CDS

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

OB Microphones

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

OB Kits

Not Available

N/A

 

                Table showing figures for technical facilities of Radio Kinnaird includes most columns showing not available result. Most of the equipment required for the training of students is missing. However, it provides a starting point or point of departure for the female students of Lahore College for Woman University.
3.3. Technical Introduction of Voice of LCWU FM 96.6
Name of University:
Lahore College for Women University

Channel Name: Voice of LCWU FM 96.6                     Frequency: 96.6 MHz

Transmission Time: 11:00-01:00 PM                         Transmitter Power: 500 Watts
                                          

List of Technical Staff

Name

Designation

Shoaib Yousaf

FM operator, Technical

 

List of Equipments

No.

Name of Equipment

Quantity

Status

  1.  

Micro Phone

9

Active

  1.  

Audio Mixer

2

Active

  1.  

CD Player

1

Active

  1.  

Audio Cassette player

1

Active

  1.  

MD Player

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

Computer Systems( 1 Server, 1 Reco Machine)

4

Active

  1.  

Head Phone

6

Active

  1.  

IC Recorder

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

Sound Processor

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

Delaying Machine

1

Active

  1.  

Hybrid Set (For live calls)

1

Active

  1.  

Sound Speakers

2

Active

  1.  

Radio Monitors

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

FM transmitter

1

Active

  1.  

Software CDS

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

OB Microphones

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

OB Kits

Not Available

N/A

  1.  

OB Van

1

Active

 

                According to collected data for Lahore College for Women University radio voice of LCWU 96.6, only one person is available for the technical support of student. There is no fix time schedule for the transmission. On the other hand, it airs recorded transmission which does allow students to experience challenges of live transmission. Available equipments of the station are sufficient for the recorded transmission.  

3.4. Comparison Tables of Technical Facilities

Number of Students Seeking Training

Punjab University

Kinnaird College

Lahore College for Woman University

1000

500

250

 

Transmitter Power

Punjab University

Kinnaird College

Lahore College for Woman University

50 Watt

500 Watt

230 Watt

 

Transmission Time

Punjab University

Kinnaird College

Lahore College for Woman University

12:0004:00PM

11:00AM-01:00PM

11:00AM-01:00PM

 

List of Technical Staff

Punjab University

Kinnard College

Lahore College for Woman University

Abdul Rehman

Syed Majid Ali

Shoaib Yousaf

Ahmad Raza Ghuman

 

 

Masood Khalid Malhi

 

 

 

List of Equipments

No.

Name of Equipment

PU

KCW

LCWU

  1.  

Micro Phone

6

5

9

  1.  

Audio Mixer

2

2

2

  1.  

CD Player

2

Not Available

1

  1.  

Audio Cassette player

2

Not Available

1

  1.  

MD Player

2

Not Available

Not Available

  1.  

Computer Systems (other than 1 Server, 1 Reco Machine)

6

10

4

  1.  

Head Phone

12

Not Available

6

  1.  

IC Recorder

6

Not Available

Not Available

  1.  

Sound Processor

1

Not Available

Not Available

  1.  

Delaying Machine

1

1

1

  1.  

Hybrid Set (For live calls)

1

Not Available

1

  1.  

Sound Speakers

3 Pairs

4

2

  1.  

Radio Monitors

12

Not Available

Not Available

  1.  

FM transmitter

2

1

1

  1.  

Software CDS

25

Not Available

Not Available

  1.  

OB Microphones

6

Not Available

Not Available

  1.  

OB Kits

2

Not Available

Not Available

  1.  

OB Van

Not Available

Not Available

1

 

4. Findings & Interpretations

        The purpose of the present study is to compare the technical standing of FM radio stations of three prestigious institutions i.e. university of the Punjab, Lahore College for Women University and Kinnaird College. As mentioned in the chapter of methodology, survey method was applied on the present research and results are presented in table form for the purpose of better comparison.

                On the basis of data collected above, the researcher found that PUFM 104.6 leads the rest two FM radio broadcasting houses in terms of its equipment, capacity for training the students, technical staff it has available for the training and operations of FM radio station and in terms of its transmission time. On the other hand, maintenance of already available equipment with no item in mal functioning condition shows professionalism of its staff and administration. Lahore College for Woman University gets second place as a media training house and practice laboratory for the students. Kinnaird College for Women falls last in the list for having no live transmission and due to its shorter time span for transmission.

 

  1. IV.              Conclusion

In a country like Pakistan, where media had been the most controlled in practice and had been limited as an academic choice, above mentioned set ups are a step forward and positive step not only by adding another profession in list of already available options for young generation but also in making a real professional image of new born Pakistani media by producing young talented and well trained media professionals. On the basis of data collected above and its interpretation, following conclusions can be drawn;

  • University of Punjab has comparatively more equipped practice area for its students in form of PUFM 104.6 as compared to Lahore College for Woman University and Kinnaird College for Women.
  • Overall, public sector universities in Lahore offer training to their student but do not have sufficient practice place and equipment for this purpose.
  • In the era of electronic media where it is believed to be the representative media of society, students are not offered variety of activities to in order to get mastery of it.
  • For total number of 1750 students, above mentioned radio labs, technical staff and transmission schedules are not sufficient by any means.
  • Lack of equipment and malfunctioning of already available material shows that there is lack of particular check and balance on these media institution by higher authorities and higher education commission.

 

Acknowledgements

                Allah blessed us with the strength to complete the research and bring it down in black and white. The contribution of Mr. Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry, Lecturer, Institute of communication studies in the form of knowledge of research which he imparted during our studies is the key factor in the construction of this paper. The motivation and guide lines of Mr. Fahad Anis, M.phil scholar at Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad worth acknowledging before I close the paper. May God bless them with success they deserve.

 

Election, A selection of destiny

Posted On April 5, 2013

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Elections 2013 are approaching. Election Commission of Pakistan is playing an active role in secrunity of candidates and trying to keep defaulters away from participating in election. This will no doubt help in cleaning parliament of Pakistan. But is this really effective? Well the answer is no. ECP alone cannot perform responsibility of cleaning. We, people of Pakistan have to make right choice for the establishment of parliament that will help improve condition of Pakistan. Right selection in Election 2013 by people of Pakistan will decide destiny of country. 

What makes us backward Nation?

On a hot day summer day in Pakistan, can you find a place where you can breathe once without feeling pity for you, your country and for your future? Future is a question for us which is almost impossible to answer.

But the most tragic side is that we always try to held others (politicians, administration) responsible for all that is happening with us. Are they really responsible for corruption, power shortage, lack of justice, inflation, child rapes, abduction, robberies, target killing and many mores which are not taken into list?

Politicians and administrators are all supported by us. We elect politician and make them sit to rule us. So, why we held them responsible for all massacres?

Bureaucrats are those who belong to us and study hard to get to a position, once they sit on a seat, they forget all moral limits. Why did not their parents made them morally strong enough to resist falling prey to immoral use of power? Are they responsible or education and social set up which did not train them enough to be real Human Beings?

They are not ones responsible for our backwardness, but it is our pattern of thinking that is real contributor to our backwardness. If we aright our attitude and make correct decisions while electing our representatives, half the problem is solved. And rest can be solved by improving moral standards of our education and society. We need to set up a lust-free society that should be based  on golden principles of Islam.

Media is making justice impossible

Posted On January 30, 2011

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A judge in Pakistan is not in position to act freely as he is under pressure of many forces. These forces may be political, ethnic, religious or fear of loosing job. However we should not forget that judges are also made from the same clay we are made. In a country like Pakistan, a free judical system is among those requirments which are primary to lead it towards light of progress. We need judges like Justice Ghulam Safdar Shah who thought it unfair to hang leader of nation, Z.A. Bhutto.

Our “Worst” neighbour, India is setting some example which after reading put a question mark on our judicial system. A recent case in which a bench of two judges took notice of killing a Maoist leader and a journalist accompanying him. They questioned Govt about this case in a way in which a poor in Pakistan is questioned. Another case in which an Australian missionary was murdered by an Indian for spreading Christianity requires attention. The killer was sentenced for life but court took notice and ordered to hang him.

However the story remains uncomplete if Indian are taken as exmple. We should keep in mind the case of Afzal Guru who was held responsible for attack on Indian Parliment. He is still seeking justice. Indian court is able to frame any decision against him. It is because Indian media has altered all realities to relate him with Kashmiri jihadi group. Although their forces admit that he was in regular observation before these attacks and there is no proof of his connection with Kashmiri jihadis. Thousands of other cases in India and other parts of world have been disturbed by media and situation is still going from bad to worse.

As far as Pakistan is concerned, the situation is more alarming. Media is not only leading the court but is itself trying to acquire authority of decision. For instance, if we take example of Mukhtara Mai case, it was media who made the reality different whixh later caused alot of harm to our international image. Another example of Sialkot case in which two brothers were killed very badly, media ,made it impossible to unveil the reality. Salamn taseer’s murder again is an example in which role of media cannot be ignored. The top most of all these cases is Bill against Law of Blasphmy which needs serious attention from serious heads. But media has made the discussion in some other directions instead of making it easy for court or parliment to discuss it. itisan obvious fact that media is important but as a watchdog only. There is a serious need of maintaining a check on direction of media. it can be done first by media persons. They should keep there positions and minds clear and should not compromise our national intigrity and social balance. On the other hand, society should keep a check on media. We all should not allow media people to influence any decision and we should not allow them to alter any reality. A strong and effective justice system is a sure way to make our society a heaven on earth.

“Peace is not the absence of war but the presence of justice.”

Missing u

Posted On December 6, 2010

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Missing you could turn from pain to pleasure, if I knew you were missing me too.

Mother is mother of all blessings.

Posted On May 10, 2010

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God Almighty has blessed man with uncountable blessings . He has given us those things which we cannot even count in our whole life. Starting from minors to mighty blessing, it is obvious that “Mother is mother of all blessings”. There are several differences between all religions of world but the only thing common is respect of mother in all religions.

West has given us many new things in which most are in contradiction with our religion and social set up. But celebrating 9th May as Mother’s Day in copy of west was the occasion that made me to think that west is versatile that contains all sort of values. Now it is up to us to adopt only those values which do not lead us away from our religion and social set up.

“May Mother of everyone stay healthy and blessed”

What Judges were expected to do?

Posted On February 18, 2010

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When all the people of Pakistan were fighting for the independence of  judiciary, they were not caring for their lives. They lived away from their homes, families and loved ones for long marches to make it success. It was not meant to achieve their personal goals or benefits but it was to have an independent judicial system. They fought with heart and souls for the restoration of judges. It became a national movement and every Pakistani participated in it. This, they were doing for a national cause.

They were struggling and fighting for the wish to have an independent judicial system that will safeguard their rights. They were hoping that this new and independent judicial system will save them against those who are looting and crushing them sine last 62 years. People gave their blood to this movement of lawyers in order to have those judges who will decide in the favor of people not in the favor of any dictator or politician.

What happened after the success of the movement? Has those goals been achieved? Are people getting justice according to the constitution of Pakistan? is judiciary is ensuring all fundamental rights of people? is judiciary making accurate interpretation of law? is this judiciary really different from the judiciary of past?

These question needs to be answered by those who are the beneficiaries of that movement? Those people should answer for whom people shed their blood. is N.R.O more important or promotion of Justice Saqib Nisar? Inflation is rising everyday but judiciary is involved in some other conflicts. When we will get those results for which we sacrificed for months and fought against Pervaiz Musharraf.

Why not to Thank Shah Rukh Khan?

Posted On February 16, 2010

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Shah Rukh Khan, The Bollywood king has won the hearts of  billions of Muslims of entire world by making movie “My Name is Khan”. This work was required to be done by Pakistan film industry or some Arab Muslim but it is done by a SEMI-MUSLIM (as we consider him). Mr. Khan has served the entire Muslim Nation.

We all know that it is media of west that has proved the Muslims of whole world as terrorist. It was essential to take counter action against it but their had been no Mard-e-Mujahid to do so. This job has been done by Shah Rukh Khan. He has become the first one to promote the image of Muslims in the world.

“My name is khan and i am not terrorist” is not only the leading sentence of movie but its the voice of every Muslim of the world. Its the voice of all those parents who lost their sons in so-called anti terrorist moves and wars. Its the Salogan of those who had lost their families and loved ones in Daron Attacks.

We, as a Pakistani and as a Muslim Nation really thank Shah Rukh Khan for this Great Step.

We salute you Shah Rukh Khan. You are really King of our hearts.

Basant and Great decision of LHC

Posted On February 11, 2010

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Recently, LHC (Lahore High Court) has cancelled the petition which was seeking permission for basabt. This decision has no doubt carried the wills and wishes of majority of papulation to the destination as most of people do not want to celebrate this “Bloody” Festival. It ihas taken away many beloved from their parents and has awarded disability to many of  our able countrymen.

However this decision has disoppinted many of those “JEALAS” who were waiting for the day to come as they had planned many of their “Favorite” activities which include firing, drinking, playing vulgur music on their roofs, arranging mujraas, flying kites with metal thread and enjoying parties with”friends”. But the ecision of court is upto the expectation of those who do not have any other son to lose for the pleasure of this JEALA  group.

 Farasat Ali Butt, senior member of Kite Flying Association has announced to celebrate his basant in India which is nothing less than an activity to cause humilation of our beloved country Pakistan. He is going to show to the world that they have no pleasure to enjoy in Pkaistan. These people are not ready to sacrify their personal pleasure for national intigrity and respect. These people must be asked this question that “is basant is more dear to them than the respect of Pakistan and its courts?’

I appreciate this decision of court to to keep a ban on basant. This is not only a decision to save the lives of many people but also to prevent wastage of alot of money that people fly in one night over this Non-Ethical festival.

Mobile is a virus for young generation.

Posted On February 10, 2010

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It was past when young ones were attentive to the words of their parents, elders and teachers. They used to listen their words and advices. But now the story is far more differnt as youngs are always busy. Their heads are bent down like obidents but in fact they are down for some other purpose. They are always down in order to have a look on each incoming texts and miss calls. It does not matter wheather they are in their house, class, friends or somewhere in the party. This all is happening just because of this mobile virus. Young ones spend their nights restless and it results in reducing their performance in  exams and other practical places.

What can be done is still a question but in last week we got a ray of hope from the horizion of Government of Punjab that they are planning to ban night packages of all mobile phone companies. Its exiting to note that our Government has finally got some ear towards the issue of young generation other than some usuall issues which are almost unnecessary to discuss in assemblies.

Its a good step if  Government seriously act against this virus of mobile phone which is actually spreading at a great speed and playing a vital role in diverting young generation from their actuall cause. Our country needs workers not night awakers. Baning these night packages can realy help us to recover our generation which has been badely affecdted by this virus.

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